芒属植物简介
A brief to Miscanthus

芒属植物(Miscanthus)为禾本科的C4类多年生高大草本,主要分布于东亚、东南亚和太平洋群岛等地区。芒属植物为高度自交不亲和植物,具有生物质产量高,地下根状茎发达,抗逆性强,适应性广等特点,可应用于造纸、制药、水土保持和生态修复等。近年来,芒属植物作为一种具有重要开发利用前景的能源作物而受到高度关注。目前在欧洲和北美地区作为能源植物广泛栽培和研究的芒属植物品种主要是从日本引入的 “奇岗”(M. x giganteus),它被认为是芒与荻种间杂交产生的异源三倍体。M. x giganteus的地上部干生物质产量在不同地区一般可达到10~40/公顷·年,可用于火力发电或生产燃料乙醇。

我国是世界芒属植物的分布中心,其大致分布范围为18°N~50°N98°E~135°E,主要种类有芒(M. sinensis)、五节芒(M. floridulus)、荻(M. sacchariflorus)和南荻(M. lutarioriparius)等,其中芒为广布种,而南荻为我国的特有种。在我国长江中下游地区,南荻具有作为造纸原料利用的悠久历史,并有大面积人工栽培。

湖南农业大学自20世纪80年代起就开展了芒属植物的研究,采用植物细胞工程技术选育出了同源四倍体新品种芙蓉南荻,同时还培育出国际上第一例转基因芒属植物转外源Bt基因的抗虫南荻新种质。并建立了一个保存有超过1000份芒属野生种质的资源圃。

 

Miscanthus Andersson (Poaceae) is a kind of perennial rhizomatous grasses with C4 photosynthesis and native to East asia, Southeast asia and Pacific islands. Miscanthus species are self-incompatiblity plants with characteristics of high biomass productivity, strong adversity resistance, extensive adaptability and relatively low input cost, etc and can be used in paper-made industry, pharmacy industry, soil and water conservation and ecological restoration for heavy metal pollution. Miscanthus has received a considerable attention as a potential bioenergy crop in recent years. At present, M. x giganteus, which was an allotriploid hybrid between M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus and introduced to Europe from Japan as an ornamental in 1935 has been widely studied and tested in Europe and North America as a major cultivar of energy crop for biomass feedstock production. M. x giganteus gives a dry biomass yield of 10~40 t·ha-1·year-1 when cultivated in different regions to be used as a raw material for producing power or fuel ethanol.

China is a distribution center of Miscanthus species, ranging from 18°N to 50°N and from 98°E to 135°E. There are four dominant species in China including M. sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and M. lutarioriparius, in which M. sinensis is the most widely distributed species and M. lutarioriparius is specific to China. It has a long history for M. lutarioriparius to be artificially cultivated in a large-scale as a good raw material for paper making in the lower and middle reaches of Yangzi River.

Since 1980s, Hunan Agricultural University began to conduct the researches on Miscanthus genetics and improvement. An autotetriploid cultivar of M. lutarioriparius, “Furong Nandi” was induced through tissue culture in vitro, and furthermore an insect-resistance transgenic M. lutarioriparius with foreign Bt gene was developed by particle bombardment transformation. In addition, a germplasm nursery was established and more than 1,000 wild Miscanthus collections were preserved.

 




湖南农业大学|生物科学技术学院|联系我们|
Copyright @ 2008 芒属能源植物网 Powered by OK3W
湘备IPC备08103694号